In the National Archives, records of the Federal government are arranged in numbered record groups (RG), with each record group comprising the records of a major government entity, usually a bureau or an independent agency. For example, National Archives Record Group 4 is Records of the U.S. Food Administration.

Most record groups include records of any predecessors of the organization named in the title of the record group. A few record groups combine the records of several small or short-lived agencies having an administrative or functional relationship with each other. An example of this type of record group is Record Group 76, Records of Boundary and Claims Commissions and Arbitrations.

The number assigned to a record group reflects the order in which it was established by the National Archives.

Record Group 1 Records of the War Labor Policies Board
Record Group 2 Records of the National War Labor Board (World War I)
Record Group 3 Records of the U.S. Housing Corporation
Record Group 4 Records of the U.S. Food Administration [USFA], 1917-20
Record Group 5 Records of the U.S. Grain Corporation
Record Group 6 Records of the U.S. Sugar Equalization Board, Inc.
Record Group 7 Records of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Record Group 8 Records of the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering
Record Group 9 Records of the National Recovery Administration
Record Group 10 Records of the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement
Record Group 11 General Records of the U.S. Government
Record Group 12 Records of the Office of Education
Record Group 13 Records of the National Mediation Board
Record Group 14 Records of the U.S. Railroad Administration
Record Group 15 Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs
Record Group 16 Records of the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture
Record Group 17 Records of the Bureau of Animal Industry
Record Group 18 Records of the Army Air Forces
Record Group 19 Records of the Bureau of Ships
Record Group 20 Records of the Office of the Special Adviser to the President on Foreign Trade
Record Group 21 Records of the District Courts of the United States
Record Group 26 Records of the United States Coast Guard (USCG)
Record Group 28 Records of the Post Office Department, 1773-1971
Record Group 29 Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790-1996
Record Group 48 Records of the Secretary of the Interior
Record Group 49 Records of the Bureau of Land Management [BLM]
Record Group 59 General Records of the Department of State
Record Group 60 General Records of the Department of Justice [DOJ], 1790-1989
Record Group 65 Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 1896-1996
Record Group 75 Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
Record Group 79 Records of the National Park Service [NPS]
Record Group 84 Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State
Record Group 94 Records of the Adjutant General's Office
Record Group 102 Records of the Children's Bureau
Record Group 107 Records of the Office of the Secretary of War
Record Group 181 Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments
Record Group 120 Records of the American Expeditionary Forces (World War I)
Record Group 226 Records of the Office of Strategic Services [OSS]
Record Group 255 Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA]
Record Group 267 Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1772-1997
Record Group 276 Records of the United States Courts of Appeals, 1891-1995
Record Group 302 Records of the National Capitol Housing Authority, 1916-1963
Record Group 303 Records of the National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development, 1965 - 1971
Record Group 304 Records of the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization [OCDM], 1947 - 1962
Record Group 305 Records of the Bonneville Power Administration
Record Group 306 Records of the U.S. Information Agency, 1900 - 2003
Record Group 307 Records of the National Science Foundation
Record Group 308 Records of the U.S. Tax Court
Record Group 309 Records of the Small Business Administration
Record Group 310 Records of the Agricultural Research Service
Record Group 311 Records of the Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA]
Record Group 313 Records of Naval Operating Forces
Record Group 490 Records of the Peace Corps, 1961-2000

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